BIOL 101  -  General Biology,  4 credits.  

An examination of the basic concepts of biology and the ways in which biologists ask and answer questions; practical applications of important biological discoveries and their relationships to public issues. Designed for non-majors. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the global studies program and the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Every Semester, Summer Session  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 121  -  Cell Biology,  4 credits.  

This course provides an introduction to cell structure and function. Major topics include the scientific method of study, the biochemistry and organization of the cell, mechanisms by which energy is harvested and used by cells, how cells reproduce, and how information is stored and used within a cell. Offered in an integrated lecture/laboratory format.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 122  -  Evolution and Diversity,  4 credits.  

An introduction to the major concept of biology-evolutionary theory. The diversity of life on earth, excluding the vertebrates of the animal kingdom, is then explored in light of this concept. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 121  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 152 / CHEM 152  -  Vocation and the Health Professions,  1 credits.  

Intended for freshmen and sophomore students interested in various careers in the health professions. This course offers a balance of personal reflection and practical information. The concept of "vocation as calling" will be emphasized and students will be asked to reflect upon their reasons for choosing a particular career path. Practical information will include various career options in the health professions, undergraduate expectations, professional school admissions requirements, and non-traditional career paths.

Frequency: Every Semester  
BIOL 207  -  Fundamental Microbiology,  4 credits.  

This course is primarily designed for students in the nursing and nutrition and dietetics programs, however enrollment is open to any interested student. This course examines basic concepts in microbiology, with emphasis placed on bacteria. Three class periods and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
BIOL 221  -  Ecology,  4 credits.  

Covers the basic principles of energy and nutrient movement through the ecosystems, the forces that structure ecosystems, and the interactions between organisms and the environment and each other. This course emphasizes quantitative skills. Two lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and BIOL 122 and (CHEM 127 (may be taken concurrently) or CHEM 137)  
BIOL 222  -  Genetics and Molecular Biology,  4 credits.  

A study of classical genetics, gene structure, and mechanisms of gene expression. This course is writing intensive. Model systems commonly used in molecular genetic research are used in labs. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and BIOL 122 and BIOL 221 and (CHEM 128 (may be taken concurrently) or CHEM 138 (may be taken concurrently))  
BIOL 250  -  Pre-May Seminar,  1 credits.  
Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
BIOL 300  -  May Seminar,  4 credits.  
Frequency: May Seminar  
Prerequisites: BIOL 250  
BIOL 303  -  Biomedical Ethics,  4 credits.  

Examination of contemporary issues in biomedicine from the perspective of several disciplines, including biology, medicine, ethics, sociology and economics. The course does not count toward the biology major or minor. Prerequisite: four credits in biology

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester, Every Year - Second Semester  
BIOL 305  -  Ecology and Field Biology,  4 credits.  

An examination of the basic principles of ecology with extensive field investigation of numerous types of ecosystems.

Frequency: Summer Session  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 306  -  Human Anatomy and Physiology,  4 credits.  

This course, which focuses on the structure and functions of human organ systems and includes examination of human cadavers, is recommended for majors and minors in physical education and for students preparing for allied health professions. It is also open to biology majors and minors who do not take BIOL 411 - Integrated Vertebrate Anatomy and Physiology I. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester, Summer Session  
Prerequisites: BIOL 101 or BIOL 121  
BIOL 309  -  Ornithology,  4 credits.  

A study of the form and function of birds, their identification, life history and adaptations. Two lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 311  -  Entomology,  4 credits.  

Introduction to insects and their ecology, their interaction with people via medical and veterinarian entomology, as well as forensic entomology, and the role insects have played in human history. Two lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 312  -  Mammalogy,  4 credits.  

Mammalogy is the study of mammals, their identification, evolution, natural history, and techniques used for scientific study. The course covers anatomy, phylogeny, systematics, ecology, adaptations, physiology, natural history, and current methodology used to study mammals.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 313  -  Plant Taxonomy,  4 credits.  

Identification, nomenclature, and classification of vascular plants. Six hours of lecture and laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 327 / ENVR 327  -  Conservation Biology,  0-4 credits.  

Students will develop their understanding of biodiversity, the skills needed to participate in the science and management of Earth's biological systems, and individual perspectives on responsible engagement in the world as scientists and as citizens. Three hours of lab per week or, in alternate years, a ten-day field trip to Florida during Spring Break (an additional fee will be required for the Florida years).

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and CHEM 127  
BIOL 336  -  Histology,  4 credits.  

A microscopic study of tissues and organs of vertebrates, with special reference to humans. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. Lab includes introduction to basic histotechnique and digital photomicroscopy.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 350  -  Animal Behavior,  4 credits.  

A study of the physiological, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of animal behavior. Labs focus on learning observation skills, terminology, and designing of animal behavior experiments. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week. This course can also count toward the environmental and sustainability studies program.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 352  -  Immunology and Parasitology,  4 credits.  

An in-depth study of the human immune system and its regulation. The mechanisms and actions of the humoral and cell-mediated immune systems are emphasized. A portion of the course is devoted to representative parasitic protozoa, helminthes and arthropods, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 360 / ENVR 360  -  Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS),  4 credits.  

Students will develop a basic understanding of a GIS and how it is used to make geospatial decisions using the software ArcGIS. Students will learn the use of spatial analytical tools to answer questions and solve problems concerning spatial data, and present their results in professional quality maps. Prerequisite: sophomore standing. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
BIOL 380  -  Special Topics,  0-4 credits.  

Courses covering various topics of interest in this particular discipline are offered regularly. Contact department or program chair for more information.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
Repeatable: Yes  
BIOL 390  -  Internship,  1-8 credits.  
Frequency: Every Semester  
Repeatable: Yes  
BIOL 395  -  Internship in Medicine,  4 credits.  
Frequency: Every Semester  
Repeatable: Yes  
BIOL 400 / NEU 400  -  Neurobiology,  4 credits.  

This course expands upon content covered in NEU 109 and BIO 222 and explores a variety of topics including neuroanatomy, neural cell characteristics and communication, and mechanisms of nervous system injury and repair. There is an emphasis on active learning, experimental design, and reading scientific literature. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 222 or NEU 109  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 402  -  Embryology,  4 credits.  

Principles of animal development with an emphasis on the developmental anatomy of vertebrates. Two lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 405  -  General Ecology,  4 credits.  

Discussion of the basic principles concerning the relationships between organisms and their environments. Two lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 406  -  Advanced Cell Biology,  4 credits.  

The scientific study of the genetic mechanisms and internal organization of the cell, with an emphasis on cells in their social context and contemporary methods for investigating cells. Offered as lecture/lab combo with two lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222 and CHEM 127 and (CHEM 128 (may be taken concurrently) or CHEM 138 (may be taken concurrently))  
BIOL 407  -  Microbiology,  4 credits.  

This course examines principles and techniques of microbiology, with emphasis placed on bacteria. The role of microorganisms in relation to humans is stressed. Three class periods and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 409  -  Limnology,  4 credits.  

The scientific study of physical, chemical and biological conditions in freshwater ecosystems. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
Corequisites: PEAK 400  
This course is PEAK Required  
BIOL 411  -  Integrated Vertebrate Anatomy and Physiology I,  4 credits.  

Together with BIOL 412, this course focuses on structures and functions of vertebrate organ systems, with primary emphasis on mammals. Included is study of skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, respiratory, renal, digestive and reproductive systems, with emphasis on normal homeostatic mechanisms and pathophysiology. Laboratory study includes dissection of the human body, small animal surgery and selected physiological studies. Three lecture sessions and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222  
BIOL 412  -  Integrated Vertebrate Anatomy and Physiology II,  4 credits.  

A continuation of BIOL 411. Three lectures sessions and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222 and BIOL 411  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 416  -  Advanced Topics in Genetics,  4 credits.  

This course is intended to follow an introductory course in genetics. It is not a comprehensive course but will cover a variety of topics in depth, typically including cancer genetics, developmental genetics, genetics of complex traits, extranuclear inheritance, quantitative genetics and evolutionary genetics. Three lectures and four hours of laboratory per week.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222 and (CHEM 128 or CHEM 138)  
Core designations: Natural Science N  
BIOL 444  -  Ecology of East Africa,  4 credits.  

This biology field course will provide students with the unique opportunity to become immersed in the ecology of east Africa. This field course will teach students plant and wildlife identification skills, basic monitoring and behavioral ecology techniques. Course consists of an intensive 30-day trip in east Africa. There will be a series of meetings the semester prior to departure.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis, May Seminar  
Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and BIOL 221  
Corequisites: PEAK 400  
This course is PEAK Required  
BIOL 480  -  Independent Study,  1-4 credits.  

This course provides an opportunity for individual students to conduct in-depth study of a particular topic under the supervision of a faculty member. Contact the department or program chair for more information.

Frequency: Every Semester  
Repeatable: Yes  
BIOL 487  -  Directed Research,  1-4 credits.  

This course provides an opportunity for individual students to conduct research in a specific area of study, completed under the direction of a faculty mentor. Specific expectations of the research experience to be determined by the faculty. Repeatable for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

Frequency: Not offered on a Regular Basis  
Repeatable: Yes  
BIOL 497  -  Research Seminar,  4 credits.  

A directed-research course taught in the style of a graduate school seminar. Students propose, plan and conduct original research, read primary literature, evaluate data and prepare results for presentation. Research integrates multiple science disciplines and encourages development of independent and collaborative research skills. Additional techniques and related topics are discussed.

Frequency: Every Year - First Semester, Every Year - Second Semester  
Prerequisites: BIOL 221 and BIOL 222 and (CHEM 128 or CHEM 138)